Informations Technolgie (IT)


IT – Information Technology (Elektronische Daten Verarbeitung (EDV))

ECU – Electronic Control Unit [Also known as an electronic control module (ECM), is an embedded system in automotive electronics that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a car or other motor vehicle.]

ECU – End Cryptographic Unit [ Typically is part of a larger system for which the device provides security services]

NeRF – Neural Radiance Fields [AI Video files]

SDH – Software Defined Hardware

SDR – Software Defined Radio

Heterogeneous compute – CPU, GPU, NPU, Video Engine and Secure Enclave Chip

SIEM – Security Information and Event Management

SoC – System on a Chip

Bus – Omnibus

Rapid prototyping

MVP – Minimal Viable Product


SDK – Software Development Kit

Cell tower (Funkmast)



PPI – Pixels Per Inch

MLM – Multi-Level Marketing vs Pyramid Schemes

PDA – Personal Digital Assistant

OSI model – physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, application

PXE boot – Preboot Execution Environment, booting over LAN

PoE – Power over Ethernet

Security by Design

Security by Obscurity

Shared Medium

Dual Stack



IPTV – Internet Protocol TeleVision

User ID – unique user Identification Document (ID)

Name tag (user handle) – public facing user identifier for network users

Backbone – a high-speed line or series of lines that forms the fastest (measured in bandwidth) path through a network

Shor’s [Algorithm] – finding prime numbers through factoring

RSA [Algorithm] – encryption and decryption

Hot Swapping (“Heißes Tauschen”) – is the replacement or addition of components to a computer system without stopping, shutting down, or rebooting the system; hot plugging describes the addition of components only

Hot Pluggin – plugging in now components without stopping, shutting down, or rebooting the system

Broadband (Breitband)

CAD – Computer Aided Design

CAM – Computer Aided Manufacturing

NDA – Non-Disclosure Agreement (Verschwiegenheitserklärung)

DOS – Disk Operating System

MS-DOS – MicroSoft Disk Operating System

DoS – Denial of Service

NPU – Neural Processing Unit e.g. Apple iPhone Neural Engine

NN – Neuronal Networks

Alpha – First often just internal used release

Beta – Public facing release of product or software

FSD – Full Self Driving

Kiosk Mode (Kiosk Application) – Operating System (OS) not visible, just the application

Codec [Algorithm] – A device or computer program that encodes or decodes a data stream or signal. Codec is a portmanteau of coder/decoder. In electronic communications, an endec is a device that acts as both an encoder and a decoder on a signal or data stream, and hence is a type of codec.

Technology – What is technology? It’s technique. It’s the way we all do things. And when you discover a new way to do things, its value is multiplied by all the people who use it. It is the proverbial fishing rod, rather than the fish. That’s the difference between a startup and a restaurant or a barber shop. You fry eggs or cut hair one customer at a time. Whereas if you solve a technical problem that a lot of people care about, you help everyone who uses your solution. That’s leverage

R&D – Research and Developtment (Forschung und Entwicklung)

M&A – Merger and Aquisitions

IPO – Initial Public Offering (Börsengang)

EoC – Economies of Scale (Skaleneffekte)

CEO – Chief Executive Officer (Geschäftsführer)

CFO – Chief Financial Officer

CTO – Chief Technology Officer

USP – Unique Selling Proposition (Alleinstellungsmerkmal)

KPI – Key Performance Indicator (Kennzahl)

E-Mail – Electronic-Mail

Guerilla Marketing – Guerrilla marketing is an advertising approach that borrows the concept of “guerrilla” warfare, or the element of surprise, to communicate with target audiences. This form of marketing relies on unconventional and inventive displays to elicit wonder or shock and can be especially effective for driving publicity.

Update – A new, improved, or fixed software that replaces older versions of the same software. For example, updating your operating system brings it up-to-date with the latest drivers, system utilities, and security software.

VR – Virtual Reality

AR – Argumented Reality

Tool – A tool is any instrument or simple piece of equipment that you hold in your hands and use to do a particular kind of work. For example, spades, hammers, and knives are all tools. I find the best tool for the purpose is a pair of shears

File Server – Is a computer responsible for the storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files

Pragmatic – In the field of programming, this term refers to the “best practices” of programming. These often refer to writing clean code and managing the code in a manner as efficient as possible, to make it easily understandable, by the person that writes the code, and by the people that will read the code in the future. [e.g. HTML wanting to visualise and communicate knowledge]

Semantic – The means by which the conceptual or abstract components of an object, idea, or impression are stored in memory. [e.g. HTML <h1> meaning a title]

Syntax – Is the set of rules that define what the various combinations of symbols mean. This tells the computer how to read the code. Syntax refers to a concept in writing code dealing with a very specific set of words and a very specific order to those words when we give the computer instructions. [e.g. HTML <div> hello world </div>]

OOP – Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) [Programming language syntax][e.g. Java]

Information Hiding – Focuses on hiding the non-essential details of functions and code in a program so that they are inaccessible to other components of the software. A software developer applies information hiding in software design and coding to hide unnecessary details from the rest of the program.

Abstraction – Is one of the key concepts of object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Its main goal is to handle complexity by hiding code

Code – Coding, sometimes called computer programming, is how we communicate with computers. Code tells a computer what actions to take, and writing code is like creating a set of instructions. By learning to write code, you can tell computers what to do or how to behave in a much faster way.

Refactoring – In computer programming and software design, code refactoring is the process of restructuring existing computer code – changing the factoring – without changing its external behavior. Refactoring is intended to improve the design, structure, and/or implementation of the software, while preserving its functionality

eMMC – embedded MultiMediaCard [similar to SSD memory]

Data – In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing. Relative to today’s computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form. It is acceptable for data to be used as a singular subject or a plural subject

Qubit – QUantum BInary digiT [The counterpart in quantum computing to the binary digit or bit of classical computing. Just as a bit is the basic unit of information in a classical computer, a qubit is the basic unit of information in a quantum computer]

Bit – BInary digiT [Is the smallest unit of data that a computer can process and store. A bit is always in one of two physical states, similar to an on/off light switch. The state is represented by a single binary value] [e.g. 0 or 1]

USDZ – Universal Scene Description [Apple AR files format]

Quantum Entanglement (Quantenverschränkung) [Is a bizarre, counterintuitive phenomenon that explains how two subatomic particles can be intimately linked to each other even if separated by billions of light-years of space. Despite their vast separation, a change induced in one will affect the other]

Quantum computing [An area of computer science that uses the principles of quantum theory. Quantum theory explains the behavior of energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels. Quantum computing uses subatomic particles, such as electrons or photons]

Quantum teleportation [Is closely related to entanglement of quantum systems. It may be defined as a process by which a qubit (the basic unit of quantum information) can be transmitted from one location to another, without the qubit actually being transmitted through space]

Blockchain [A decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and the consensus of the network]

STL – Standard Triangle Language [File format used in CAD for 3 dimensional objects]

Compression (Verkleinern) [A compressed file requires less storage capacity than an uncompressed file, and the use of compression can lead to a significant decrease in expenses for disk and/or solid-state drives. A compressed file also requires less time for transfer, and it consumes less network bandwidth than an uncompressed file]

Decompression [The process of expanding computer data to its normal size so that it can be read by a computer]

ZIP – Is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression. A ZIP file may contain one or more files or directories that may have been compressed

WAV – Waveform Audio File Format [Is an audio file format. It is considered a “first-generation” format with no compression except with some manipulations in order to store the sound digitally, resulting in larger sizes compared to formats like MP3 and WMA]

FLAC – Free Lossless Audio Codec [Uncompressed audio format]

AVI – Audio Video Interleave [Is a proprietary multimedia container format and Windows standard introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows software. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback]

MPEG – Moving Picture Experts Group

MP3 – Mpeg-1 audio layer 3 [A data compression format for encoding digital audio, most commonly music]

GIF – Graphics Interchange Format [Is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite and released on June 15, 1987]

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange [Is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices.]

PDF – Portable Document Format [Is a versatile file format created by Adobe that gives people an easy, reliable way to present and exchange documents – regardless of the software, hardware, or operating systems being used by anyone who views the document.]

OTS – Off-The-Shelf [A software and or hardware product that is commercially ready-made and available for sale, lease, or license to the general public]

Magnetic-tape data storage – Is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording. Tape was an important medium for primary data storage in early computers, typically using large open reels of 7-track, later 9-track tape

BD – Blu-ray Disc [Is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 2005 and can store up to 128 GB]

CD – Compact Disc [Is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony to store and play digital audio recordings.]

Backup – Refers to the copying of physical or virtual files or databases to a secondary location for preservation in case of equipment failure or catastrophe. The process of backing up data is pivotal to a successful disaster recovery plan. [e.g. copy on HDD or magnet tape]

UPS – Uninterruptible Power Source (Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung (USV)) [Is a device used to backup (Redundancy) a power supply to prevent devices and systems from power supply problems, such as a power failure or lightning strikes.] [e.g. APC Smart UPS C or CyberPower CP1500PFCLCD]

TV – TeleVision [Sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication medium for transmitting moving images and sound] [e.g. watching TV via Satellite or over WLAN Streaming]

Battery cell The basic electrochemical unit that provides a source of electrical energy by direct conversion of chemical energy and consists of an assembly of electrodes, separators, electrolyte, container, and terminals.

Cellular cell – One triangular between three cell towers

Triangulation – Is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to the point from known points

Antenna (dish) – Is  a parabolic-shaped antenna which is designed to receive television broadcasts or other electronic communication signals [e.g. Satellite TV]

SIM – Subscriber Identity Module [e.g. physical SIM card in smartphone]

eSIM – embedded-SIM [e.g. virtual SIM card in smartphone]

Mobile radio tower (Mobilfunkmast) [Providing reception for cellphones] [e.g. Internet reception for smartphones]

Radio tower (Funkmast) [Radio tower means a lattice tower that is generally 60 to 200 feet tall with three or four steel support legs, or a monopole that is generally 25 to 125 feet tall, to which multiple antennae may be attached to accommodate a variety of communication services.] [e.g. for cell phones]

RF – Radio Frequency

EULA – End-User License Agreement (Allgemeine Geschäfts. Bedingungen (AGB)

GPS – Global Positioning System [Using satellite remote sensing technology support environmental management for natural hazards and disasters, global climate change, natural resources, wildlife conservation, land cover, and many other applications]

GNSS – Global Navigation Satellite System

NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration [From the United States of America (USA)]

ESA – European Space Agency

EUSPA – European Union Agency for the Space Programme

EU – European Union

Galileo – Galileo is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) that went live in 2016, created by the European Union (EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA), operated by the European Union Agency for the Space Programme (EUSPA), headquartered in Prague, Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres in Fucino, Italy, and Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.

Orbit – An orbit is a regular, repeating path that one object in space takes around another one. An object in an orbit is called a satellite. A satellite can be natural, like Earth or the moon. Many planets have moons that orbit them.

Satelite – A communication satellite is an artificial satellite that transmits the signal via a transponder by creating a channel between the transmitter and the receiver at different earth locations. Telephone, radio, television, internet, and military applications use satellite communications.

Geosynchronous orbit – Altitude of approximately 35,800

GEO satelite – GEOstationary equatorial orbit satellite [Is an earth-orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude of approximately 35,800 kilometers (22,300 miles) directly over the equator, that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east)]

MEO – Medium Earth Orbit

LEO – Low Earth Orbit satellite is an object, generally a piece of electronic equipment, that circles around the earth at lower altitudes than geosynchronous satellites. LEO satellites orbit between 2.000 and 200 kilometres above the earth.

Cellular (Mobilfunk) – A network technology that facilitates mobile device communication over areas comprised of cells and transceivers [e.g. 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G]

Thread – A low-power and low-latency wireless mesh is an IPv6-based networking protocol built using open and proven standards. Thread solves the complexities of the IoT. Uses Bluetooth Low Energy and Wi-Fi

Matter – An open-source connectivity standard for smart home and Internet of things devices, which aims to improve their compatibility and security. The standard is royalty-free, though developers and manufacturers incur certification costs.

Wi-Fi – WIreless FIdelity [A system used for connecting computers and other electronic equipment to the internet without using wires: Built-in wi-fi now comes as a standard feature] [e.g. in a computer, tablet, smartphone or wearable] [e.g. Wi-Fi 0 (802.11), Wi-Fi 1 (802.11b), 2 (802.11a), 3 (802.11g), 4 (802.11n), 5 (802.11ac), 6 (802.11ax) and 7 (802.11be)]

BT – Bluetooth – A short-range wireless technology standard that is used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances and building personal area networks. In the most widely used mode, transmission power is limited to 2.5 milliwatts, giving it a very short range of up to 10 metres. [e.g. Bluetooth 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 5.3]

BT LE – Bluetooth Low Energy [Is a specification adopted by the Bluetooth SIG in April 2009 that enables low-power peripherals with a battery life of months to years to communicate with Bluetooth in handsets or other devices.]

NFC – Near Field Communication (e.g. iPhone using Apple Pay for paymentse, iPhone using AusweisApp2 to verify ID)

RFID – Radio Frequency IDentification [Refers to a wireless system comprised of two components: tags and readers. The reader is a device that has one or more antennas that emit radio waves and receive signals back from the RFID tag] [e.g. company building access]

Binaries – A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file. The term “binary file” is often used as a term meaning “non-text file”.

AP – wireless Access Point [A device that logically connects wireless client devices operating in infrastructure to one another and provides access to a distribution system, if connected, which is typically an organization’s enterprise wired network.] [e.g. Apple AirPort Express, AVM FRTIZ!Box or Ubiquity Access Point]

ESP 8266 – Is a low-cost Wi-Fi microchip, with built-in TCP/IP networking software, and microcontroller capability, produced by Espressif Systems

Arduino – Is an open-source hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices. [e.g. Arduino Mega 2560 Rev3]

Raspberry Pi – Is a debit card-sized low-cost computer that connects to a computer Desktop or TV and uses a standard mouse and Keyboard. It has a dedicated processor, memory, and a graphics driver, just like a PC. It also comes with its operating system, Raspberry Pi OS, a modified version of Linux. [e.g. Raspberry Pi 4 Modell B (8 GB)]

Protocol – A network protocol is an established set of rules that determine how data is transmitted between different devices in the same network. Essentially, it allows connected devices to communicate with each other, regardless of any differences in their internal processes, structure or design. [e.g. Ethernet and HTTP]

Port (Hafen oder Anschluss) [A port in networking is a software-defined number associated to a network protocol that receives or transmits communication for a specific service] [e.g. UDP and TCP]

MAC address – Media Access Control address [Address, sometimes referred to as a hardware or physical address, is a unique, 12-character alphanumeric attribute that is used to identify individual electronic devices on a network] [e.g. 00-B0-D0-63-C2-26.]

Outsourcing (Auslagern) [IT outsourcing is the use of external service providers to effectively deliver IT-enabled business process, application service and infrastructure solutions for business outcomes.] [e.g. using software developers in India instead of Germany]

UML – Unified Modeling Language [Is a general-purpose, developmental modelling language in the field of software engineering that is intended to provide a standard way to visualise the design of a system.]

EA – Enterprise Architecture

OnlineShop – Is a website on which services or products are offered for sale. [e.g. Shopify, Amazon or WooCommerce]

Error – An error in computer data is called Bug. A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways

CMS – Content Management System [e.g. WordPress, Drupal, Squarespace, Contao and Magento]

e.g. – example given (zum Beispiel, z.B.)

LoC – Lines of Code [e.g. Tesla car 10 Million LoC]

MCU – Main Computing Unit [e.g. Tesla CPU in cars]

Programming language (Programmiersprache) – e.g. Swift, C++ and JavaScript

Objective-C – Is a high-level general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. Originally developed by Brad Cox and Tom Love in the early 1980s, it was selected by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system.

Swift – Apple programming language [successor to Objective-C] [e.g. used to write iOS Apps for the iPhone]

Encryption (Verschlüsselung) – The process of converting information or data into a code, especially to prevent unauthorised access.][e.g. I use encryption to protect sensitive information transmitted online

Static – Always the same and nothing is changing [e.g. static website or link]

Asynchronous – Communication [e.g. Whatsapp, Microsoft Teams or Apple iMessages]

Synchronous – Communication [e.g. Live Stream of football match or Video messenger Apple FaceTime]

SOC – Secure Operations Center [Monitors networks and ensures cyber security for organisations]

Virtualisation – Is the creation of a virtual — rather than actual — version of something, such as an operating system (OS), a server, a storage device or network resources. Virtualization uses software that simulates hardware functionality to create a virtual system

Technology stack – Software used in backend and frontend used for making the service or product complete it tasks

Streaming – Any media content – live or recorded – delivered to computers and mobile devices via the internet and played back in real time

Thread (Gewinde, Prozess)- A thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler

Schedulers – Are special system software which handle process scheduling in various ways. Their main task is to select the jobs to be submitted into the system and to decide which process to run

Threading – Threads and processes differ from one operating system to another but, in general, a thread is contained inside a process and different threads in the same process share same resources while different processes in the same multitasking operating system do not

Multithreading – The ability of a program or an operating system to enable more than one user at a time without requiring multiple copies of the program running on the computer

Parallel – Interface through which information transfers in or out sequentially one bit at a time [e.g. 10 people streaming the same video]

Serial – Interface through which information transfers in or out sequentially one bit at a time [e.g. one person talking to another]

USB – Universal Serial Bus

CSR – Certificate Signing Request

OCSP – Online Certificate Status Protocol

Cloud – Cloud computing  is the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale [e.g. on premises, hybrid, fully public cloud or community]

ELK – Elastic Stack consists of Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana

Garbage Collection – Is a form of automatic memory management. The garbage collector attempts to reclaim memory which was allocated by the program, but is no longer referenced; such memory is called garbage

IO – Input and Output

DC – Data Center

Logging – The act of keeping a log of events that occur in a computer system, such as problems, errors or just information on current operations

XML – eXtensible Markup Language [File format]

JSON – JavaScript Object Notation

JS – JavaScript [e.g. node.js]

SPOF – Single Point Of Failure

Microservice – Are an architectural and organizational approach to software development where software is composed of small independent services that communicate over well-defined APIs. These services are owned by small, self-contained teams

DMZ – DeMilitarized Zone

SFTP – Secure File Transfer Protocol

FTP – File Transfer Protocol

WWW – World Wide Web [e.g.]

VPS – Virtual Private Server [Is a virtual machine sold as a service by an Internet hosting service. The term “virtual dedicated server” also has a similar meaning]

32-bitthe state at which data is stored, read, and processed. When related to operating systems and processors, this really means how many 1’s and 0’s are being used to represent your data. The more bits that the system can process, the more data that it can handle at once.18

64-bit – A 64-bit processor refers to a microprocessor that can process data and instructions in chunks of 64 bits. Microprocessors that can handle 64 bits perform a larger number of calculations per second compared to 32-bit processors. [e.g. Microsoft Windows 11 or Apple macOS Ventura]

IC – Integrated Circuit

x86-64 – x86-64 is a 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set, first released in 1999. It introduced two new modes of operation, 64-bit mode and compatibility mode, along with a new 4-level paging mode.

RISC – Reduced instruction set computer

ARM – Initially Acorn RISC Machine and then for Advanced RISC Machine [e.g. Apple M1 Processor]

CMOS – Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor [Is the semiconductor technology used in most of today’s integrated circuits (ICs) using transistors, also known as chips or microchips- a technology for constructing logical circuits]

MOSFET – Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor [whereas MOSFET is a device that is used in logic circuits to perform the logical function]

KANBAN (Visual Signal) – For kanban teams, every work item is represented as a separate card on the board. The main purpose of representing work as a card on the kanban board is to allow team members to track the progress of work through its workflow in a highly visual manner

SEO – Search Engine Optimisation [Improving where the rank, e.g. in Google to get more traffic to ones website]

Indexing (Indexierung) – An index is a list of words or phrases and associated pointers to where useful material relating to that heading can be found in a document or collection of documents. Examples are an index in the back matter of a book and an index that serves as a library catalog

DARPANET – Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork

ARPAnet – Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork

ERP – Enterprise Ressource Planning

Mainframe – A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer used primarily by large organisations for critical applications like bulk data processing for tasks such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and large-scale transaction processing [e.g. DecSystem PDP-10]

UBI – Universal Basic Income

Lock-in Effect (Wechselkosten) – A Lock-in effect exists when a customer is so strongly tied to a company that switching is only possible with considerable effort and expense [e.g. Apple iOS Apps on iPhone after a purchase]

RAID – Redundant Array of Independent Disks [Is a data storage virtualisation technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both] [e.g. Network Attached Storage (NAS) or storage server rack]

RAID 10 – Minimum 4 disks, this is also called as “stripe of mirrors, excellent redundancy ( as blocks are mirrored), excellent performance ( as blocks are striped ). If you can afford the dollar, this is the BEST option for any mission critical applications (especially databases)

RAID 5 – Minimum 3 disks, good performance ( as blocks are striped ), good redundancy ( distributed parity ), gest cost effective option providing both performance and redundancy. Use this for DB that is heavily read oriented. Write operations will be slow

RAID 1 – Minimum 2 disks, good performance ( no striping. no parity ) and excellent redundancy ( as blocks are mirrored)

RAID 0 – Minimum 2 disks, excellent performance ( as blocks are striped), no redundancy ( no mirror, no parity ) so don’t use this for any critical system

Redundancy (Redundanz)Having the ability to duplicate your system components, whether on hardware, VMs, or the cloud. At the user level, a simple example is making a copy of the user’s PC system and storing it on another PC as a spare in case the user’s PC fails

NAS – Network Attached Storage [e.g. Synology, QNAP, WD or Netgear]

DICOM – Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine [A standard protocol for the management and transmission of medical images and related data and is used in many healthcare facilities]

PoC – Proof of Concept

Sandboxing – A sandbox is a testing environment that isolates untested code changes and outright experimentation from the production environment or repository

Memory (Speicher) – Something that stores data [e.g. Random Access Memory (RAM), SSD or HDD]

Kernel – Is a computer program at the core of a computer’s operating system (OS) and generally has complete control over everything in the system. It is the portion of the operating system code that is always resident in memory and facilitates interactions between hardware and software components

Version control – Version control, also known as source control, is the practice of tracking and managing changes to software code. Version control systems are software tools that help software teams manage changes to source code over time [e.g. GitHub or GitLab]

Monitoring – Is the process to gather metrics about the operations of an IT environment’s hardware and software to ensure everything functions as expected to support applications and services [e.g. user can monitor applications through the macOS activity monitor or Windows task manager]

VM – Virtual Machine [Is a digital version of a physical computer. Virtual machine software can run programs and operating systems, store data, connect to networks, and do other computing functions, and requires maintenance such as updates and system monitoring] [e.g. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualisation, Xen or Citrix XenServer, Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware Workstation Player]

Hypervisor – Is software that creates and runs virtual machines (VMs). A hypervisor, sometimes called a virtual machine monitor (VMM), isolates the hypervisor operating system and resources from the virtual machines and enables the creation and management of those VMs.

KVM – Kernel-based Virtual Machine [Is a free and open-source virtualization module in the Linux kernel that allows the kernel to function as a hypervisor]

Distribution – A Linux distribution – often shortened to “Linux distro” – is a version of the open source Linux operating system that is packaged with other components, such as an installation programs, management tools and additional software such as the KVM hypervisor

GPL – General Public License or GNU [is a series of widely used free software licenses that guarantee end users the four freedoms to run, study, share, and modify the software] [e.g. GPL v3]

DRM – Digital Rights Management [Refers to the approach used to protect copyrights for digital media. It uses a variety of methods and technologies to accomplish this goal.] [e.g. license code]

OPL – More and more companies are making one point lessons as part of their continuous improvement work (LEAN). A one point lesson (OPL) is a simple, visual and often pointwise description of a task. This means a standard which describes how a task should be performed

5S – The 5S pillars, Sort (Seiri), Set in Order (Seiton), Shine (Seiso), Standardize (Seiketsu), and Sustain (Shitsuke), provide a methodology for organizing, cleaning, developing, and sustaining a productive work environment.

TPM – Total Productive Maintenance [Is a holistic approach to equipment maintenance that strives to achieve perfect production: No Breakdowns. No Small Stops or Slow Running]

TPM – The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) technology is designed to provide hardware-based, security-related functions. A TPM chip is a secure crypto-processor that is designed to carry out cryptographic operations. [e.g. Apple iPhone Secure Enclave chip]

Server based network – Is centralized in nature. Also, the storage in this kind of network is centralized. In other words, we can say that a server-based network is based on a centralized structure and provides a way to communicate via the web. The Internet is the most widely used client-server network. (e.g. Internet)

P2P – Peer to Peer [A P2P network, computing devices use software to connect with each other over a private network, such as a home local area network (LAN) or a public network, such as the Internet. This direct connection allows each device to share files without requiring the assistance of a remote server] [e.g. Blockchain from Bitcoin or Ethereum]

Analog – Analog and digital signals are the types of signals carrying information. The major difference between both signals is that the analog signals have continuous electrical signals, while digital signals have non-continuous electrical signals

Digital – Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0. Thus, data transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0’s and 1’s

Internet – INTERconnected NETworks

Ethernet – A networking technology that includes the protocol, port, cable, and computer chip needed to plug a desktop or laptop into a local area network (LAN) for speedy data transmission via coaxial or fiber optic cables

WLAN (Wi-Fi) – Wireless Local Area Network

LAN – Local Area Network [Gruppe von Rechnern, die sich eine Verbindung/Leitung nutzen] [e.g. Office, at Home, …]

WAN – Wide Area Network [Netzwerk, welches Computer über große Distanzen miteinander verbindet] [e.g. Internet]

VPN – Virtual Private Network [Sichere und privater Verbindungsaufbau über einen “Zwischen Server”] [e.g. ProtonVPN]

CI – Continuous Integration

CD – Continuous Deployment

AI – Artificiall Intelligence (Künstliche Intelligenz)

MLOps – Machine Learning OPrationS [Is a core function of Machine Learning engineering, focused on streamlining the process of taking machine learning models to production, and then maintaining and monitoring them]

DevOps – software DEVelopment and OPrationS [Can be explained as people working together to conceive, build and deliver secure software at top speed. DevOps practices enable software DEVelopment and OPerationS teams to accelerate delivery through automation, collaboration, fast feedback, and iterative improvement]

IDE [Tool] – Integrated Development Environment [e.g. JetBrains IntelliJ, Eclipse or Xcode]

UGC – User Generated Content [e.g. YouTube, TikTok, …]

BLOG – weB LOGging [Web-based micropublishing] [e.g. WordPress]

Web3 (Web 3.0) – Is an idea for a new iteration of the World Wide Web which incorporates concepts such as decentralization, blockchain technologies, and token-based economics

Web2 (Web 2.0) – Refers to websites that emphasize user-generated content (UGC), ease of use, participatory culture and interoperability for end users

Web1 (Web 1.0) – Is a web of static information that links to each other. You primarily share the information with others via URLs. Web2 is a web of social interactions linking users to each other.] [e.g. self-hosted, personal web page or a blog using a platform such as WordPress or Squarespace

Certificate – Set of data that uniquely identifies an entity, contains the entity’s public key and possibly other information, and is digitally signed by a trusted party, thereby binding the public key to the entity. Additional information in the certificate could specify how the key is used and its validity period. [e.g. SSL certificate]

PKI – Public Key Infrastructure [Generates certificates]

UX – User eXperience

GUI – Graphical User Interface e.g. mouse, clickwheel and multitouch

UI – User Interface

Delay – slowing things down [e.g. sending, transmission, processing, queuing and propagation delays]

End-to-End – An end-to-end field service management system is a term for software that provides end-to-end solutions for processes from the beginning of a workflow, right until the very end. In the case of a service job, an end-to-end system provides workflow solutions from the initial customer contact to the final payment. [e.g. End-to-End encryption]

PC – Personal Computer

Register – A temporary storage area built into a Central Processing Unit (CPU). Some registers are used internally and cannot be accessed outside the processor, while others are user-accessible. Most modern CPU architectures include both types of registers.

DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory [Is a type of semiconductor memory that is typically used for the data or program code needed by a computer processor to function. DRAM is a common type of random access memory (RAM) that is used in personal computers (PCs), workstations and servers.]

SCM – Supply Chain Management

SCM – Software Change Management [Is a methodology for software problem or change request initiation and tracking; change impact analysis; version control; security administration of software assets; software promotion; quality reviews; and software distribution]

NVMe – NonVolatile Memory express [Is a new storage access and transport protocol for flash and next-generation Solid-State Drives (SSDs) that delivers the highest throughput and fastest response times yet for all types of enterprise workloads]

Bandwith (Bandbreite) – In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path. Bandwidth may be characterized as network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth. [e.g. Telekom DSL 100 with Download 100 MB/s and Upload 25 MB/s]

Throughput – The number of data packets being successfully sent per second, and latency is the actual time those packets are taking to get there. So, the terms are related – they both relate to data transfer and speed

Latency – Measure of the responsiveness of a network, often expressed as the round-trip time (in milliseconds); that is, the time between initiating a network request and receiving a response

CPU – Central Processing Unit

RAM – Random Access Memory

API – Application Programming Interface [A software intermediary that allows two applications to talk to each other. APIs are an accessible way to extract and share data within and across organizations] [e.g. YouTube API]

TPS – Transactions Per Second

QPS – Queries Per Second

DAU – Daily Active Users

MAU – Monthly Active Users

DNS – Domain Name System [Übersetzt menschliche Sprache auf IP Adressen, z.B. auf ]

ISP – Internet Service Provider [z.B. Telekom, Vodafone und O2]

NAT – Network Adress Translation [Übersetzt private IP-Adressen von Geräten in öffentliche IP-Adresse]

IP – Internet Protocol [Regeln zum weiterleiten von Datenpaketen über Netzwerke]

VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network

TLS – Transport Layer Security [Verschlüsselungsprotokoll zur sicheren Datenübertragung im Internet]

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol [Protokoll zur dynamischen Zuweisung von IP-Adressen an Geräte in einem Netzwerk]

UDP – User Datagram Protocol [Protokoll zur Herstellung von Verbindungen mit möglichst geringer Latenz für z.B. Anrufe, Gaming etc.]

2FA – Two Factor Authentication [e.g. biometric features, Face, Iris, Fingerprint, …]

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol [Protokoll zur Herstellung von Verbindungen mit möglichst geringem bis keinem Datenverlust]

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol [Regelt die Kommunikation zwischen Servern und Clients]

HTTPS – Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure [Wie HTTP, allerdings werden hier Daten mit TLS verschlüsselt]

SMTP – Simple Mail Transer Protocol [Protokoll zum Austausch von Emails]

URL – Unified Ressource Locator

Innovation – A new idea, method, or device – The introduction of something new

Disruption – A break or interruption in the normal course or continuation of some activity, process

Downtime – Time during which a machine, especially a computer, is out of action or unavailable for use. [e.g. Server not responding when clicking on the website]

Load Balancer – Is a technique used to distribute network traffic across a pool of servers known as a server farm. It optimises network performance and reduces or in best case avoids downtime

Domain – Specific to the internet, the term domain can refer to how the internet is structured, and domain also refers to how an organization’s network resources are organized. In general, a domain is an area of control or a sphere of knowledge. [e.g. Active Directory Domain Controller]

Domain name – In the Internet, a domain name is a string that identifies a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control. Domain names are often used to identify [e.g. or]

FreeBSD – Operating System (OS) a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from the Berkeley Software Distribution, which was based on Research Unix. The first version of FreeBSD was released in 1993

Firewall – Is a network security device that monitors and filters incoming and outgoing network traffic based on an organization’s previously established security policies. [e.g. Cisco ASA [Hardware], Sophos, Juniper, Barracuda or pfSense [Software]]

Registrar – A domain name registrar is a business that handles the reservation of domain names as well as the assignment of IP addresses for those domain names. Domain names are alphanumeric aliases used to access websites; for example, Cloudflare’s domain name is ‘’ and the IP address would be something like

SSL Certificate – Secure Sockets Layer Certificate [Is a digital certificate that authenticates a website’s identity and enables an encrypted connection. SSL is a security protocol that creates an encrypted link between a web server and a web browser]

Hoster (Gastgeber) – A provider of online hosting, especially web hosting

Localhost – hosting services on local drive only accessible with local settings [e.g. helloworld.local]

OT – Operational Technology

IoT – Internet of Things

Industry 4.0 (Industrie 4.0) – Revolutionizing the way companies manufacture, improve and distribute their products. Manufacturers are integrating new technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing and analytics, and AI and machine learning into their production facilities and throughout their operations

IP – Internet Protocol

IP Adress – Internet Protocol Adress

IPv4 – [10^12 Möglichkeiten] [e.g.]

IPv6 – Is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworking and provides end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks [e.g. 2001:0db8:0001:0000:0000:0ab9:C0A8:0102]

DB – DataBase

5G – New standard aims to provide higher data rates, improved capacity and an intelligent network

4G (LTE) – Long-Term Evolution

3G (UMTS) – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

2G (GSM) – Global System for Mobile communications

1G – Analog cellular networks

Router – Device that connects two or more packet-switched networks or subnetworks. It serves two primary functions: managing traffic between these networks by forwarding data packets to their intended IP addresses, and allowing multiple devices to use the same Internet connection. [e.g. AVM FRITZ!Box, Cisco or Netgear Routers]

Modem – MOdulator-DEModulator

ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network

SSL – Secure Sockets Layer

OS – Operating System (Betriebssystem) [e.g. Microsoft Windows, Windows Server, Apple macOS, iOS, watchOS, iPadOS or Linux]

WIKI – What I Know Is

Software Architecture – How a software is built using databases, servers, frontend and backend services, load balancing and caches

Software – Comprises the entire set of programs, procedures, and routines associated with the operation of a computer system. [e.g. the OS and Apps on an Apple iPhone – iOS, iMessages, WhatsApp, TikTok…]

Hardware – Hardware refers to the external and internal devices and equipment that enable you to perform major functions such as input, output, storage, communication, processing, and more. [e.g. the Display and Housing of an Apple iPhone]

Standard – Predefined format used by the majority [e.g. USB]

Proprietary – Selfdefined format only used by minority [e.g. Apple Lightning port for charging iPhones]

Website – A collection of publicly accessible, interlinked Web pages that share a single domain name. Websites can be created and maintained by an individual, group, business or organization to serve a variety of purposes

Smart Home – A convenient home setup where appliances and devices can be automatically controlled remotely from anywhere with an internet connection using a mobile or other networked device

Docker – Operating System (OS)-level virtualisation to deliver software in packages called containers

Client – A piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server

Server (Bedienung) – A computer program or device that provides a service to another computer program and its user, also known as the client [e.g. data center]

M2M – Machine to Machine [Direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless [e.g. sensor to server, …]]

H2M – Human to Machine interface [Communication between machine and a human [e.g. input via keyboard, touchpad, mouse and output via screen or sound, voice assistant]]

B2M – Brain to Machine Interface [Direct communication between a brain and a machine, no need for external hardware as keyboard or mouse]

RDP – Remote Desktop Protocol

LLM – Large Language Models (z.B. ChatGPT)

CDN – Content Delivery Network

Hashing – Encrypting of data to make it more secure

Algorithm – Input -> Algorithm -> Output [e.g. cooking reciept]

Caching – Preloading of content

Buffering – Preloading of content

OSS – Open-Source Software [e.g OBS Studio]

Critical mass – Reaching network effects when scaling platforms [e.g. chicken egg problem]

Scaling – Increase of monitor pixels, users or revenue [e.g. increasing users on platforms]

SSH – Secure Shell Protocol

Event-driven – Software architecture that pre caches database when predefined values are reached

B2C – Business to Consumer [e.g. Buying products on]

BCB – Business to Business [e.g. Bulk buying products on for the company]

B2G – Business to Government

PHP – Personal Home Page, todays meaning the recursive initialism Hypertext Preprocessor [e.g. file.php]

SQL – Structured Query Language [e.g. phpMyAdmin, file.sql]

no SQL – [e.g. mongoDB, file.mongo]

SSD – Solid State Drive

HDD – Hard Disk Drive

Download – Transferring files from the server to the client [synonym downstream]

Upload – Transferring files from the client to the server [synonym upstream]

IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service

PaaS – Platform as a Service

SaaS – Software as a Service [e.g. Adobe Creative Cloud, DeepL, …]

Business model (Geschäftsmodell) – The term business model refers to a company’s plan for making a profit. It identifies the products or services the business plans to sell, its identified target market, and any anticipated expenses. Business models are important for both new and established businesses

Usage-Based [e.g. in Hotel when paying for Data 100 GB]

Transactional – Platform möglich machen der Transaktion (e.g. eBay Auction)

Marketplace (Marktplatz) [e.g.]

Hard tech – Hardware [e.g. Embedded Development, …]

Enterprise – Business to Business (B2B)

E-Commerce – Electronic Commerce [e.g. Shopify store]

Advertising – Google Search or YouTube with Advertisements

Bio Tec – Bio Technology [e.g. Moderna, Curevac and BioNTech SE]