Units (Standards und Einheiten)

Protocols, connectors and their transfer rates

TypeMaximum Transmission speed in BitsIn BytesRelease date
Telekom MagentaZuhause XL [55 Euro pro Monat]Download 250 Mbit/s
Upload 40 Mbit/s
31,25 MB/s
5 MB/s
Vodafone GigaZuhause 1000 Kabel [60 Euro pro Monat] [DOCSIS 3.1]Download 1000 Mbit/s
Upload 50 Mbit/s
125 MB/s
6,25 MB/s
MacBook Air M1
17,520 Mbit/s2,190 MB/s
2,675 MB/s
MacBook Pro 16 inch M2 SSD42,976 Mbit/s5,372 MB/s
6,491 MB/s
LaCie Rugged
Mini (5 TB)
1,040 Mbit/s130 MB/s
[Write and
Samsung 870 EVO SATA SSD4,240 Mbit/s and
4,480 Mbit/s
530 MB/s and 560 MB/s [Write and Read]2021
Wirless Local Area Network (WLAN) [Protocol]GHz Band
Wi-Fi 0 (802.11)2 Mbit/s0,25 MB/s19972.4 GHz
Wi-Fi 1 (802.11b)11 Mbit/s1,375 MB/s19992.4 GHz
Wi-Fi 2 (802.11a)54 Mbit/s6,75 MB/s19995 GHz
Wi-Fi 3 (802.11g)54 Mbit/s6,75 MB/s20032.4 GHz
Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n)600 Mbit/s75 MB/s20092.4 and 5 GHz
Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)1,300 Mbit/s162,5 MB/s20135 GHz
Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax)9,600 Mbit/s1,200 MB/s20192.4, 5 and 6 GHz
Wi-Fi 7 (802.11be)40,000 Mbit/s5,000 MB/s20242.4, 5 and 6 GHz
Ethernet Standards [Protocol]
Experimental Ethernet2,94 Mbit/s0,367 MB/s1973
Ethernet I (DIX v1.0)10 Mbit/s1,25 MB/s1980
Ethernet II (DIX v2.0)10 Mbit/s1,25 MB/s1982
802.3 (10Base5 standard)10 Mbit/s1,25 MB/s1983
802.3a (10Base2 thin Ethernet)10 Mbit/s1,25 MB/s1985
802.3i (10Base-T twisted-pair)10 Mbit/s1,25 MB/s1990
802.3u (100BaseT/TX Fast Ethernet and Auto-Negotiation)100 Mbit/s12,5 MB/s1995
802.3u (100BaseFX)100 Mbit/s12,5 MB/s1995
802.3u (100BaseT4)100 Mbit/s12,5 MB/s1998
802.3ab (1000BaseT)1000 Mbit/s125 MB/s1999
802.3ae (10GBaseSR 10GBaseLR 10GBaseER 10GBaseSW 10GBaseLW 10GBaseEW)10,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s2002
802.3ba40,000 Mbit/s5,000 MB/s2010
802.3bj100,000 Mbit/s12,500 MB/s2014
802.3bm100,000 Mbit/s12,500 MB/s2015
802.3cc25,000 Mbit/s3125 MB/s2017
802.3cs10,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s2022
Ethernet [Bob Metcalfe Xerox Palo Alto Research Center]3 Mbits/s1973
10 MbE10 Mbit/s1990
100 MbE100 Mbit/s1995
1 GbE1,000 Mbit/s1998
10 GbE10,000 Mbit/s
25 and 50 GbE25,000 Mbit/s and 50,000 Mbit/s2015
40 and 100 GbE40,000 Mbit/s and 100,000 Mbit/s2010, 2011, 2014, 2015 and 2018
80 and 200 GbE (Terabit Ethernet)80,000 Mbit/s and 200,000 Mbit/s2017
800 GbE800,000 Mbit/s2020
800 GbE and 1,6 TbE800,000 Mbit/s and 1,600,000 Mbits/s2024
Ethernet Copper Cable Standards [Connector]Upper Frequency
Cat 11 Mbit/s0,125 MB/s1985
Cat 24 Mbit/s0,5 MB/s
Cat 310 Mbit/s1,25 MB/s199016 MHz
Cat 416 Mbit/s2 MB/s20 MHz
Cat 5100 Mbit/s2,5 MB/s1995100 MHz
Cat 5e1,000 Mbit/s125 MB/s2001100 MHz
Cat 610,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s250 MHz
Cat 6a10,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s2008500 MHz
Cat 710,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s2010600 MHz
Cat 7a10,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s20131000 MHz
Cat 8.125,000 or 40,000 Mbit/s3,125 or 5000 MB/s20161600 MHz
Cat 8.225,000 or 40,000 Mbit/s3,125 or 5000 MB/s20161600 MHz (1,6 GHz)
Ethernet RJ [Connector]
4P4C (RJ-10, RJ-9 or RJ-22)
6P2C (RJ-11) [Phone, Modem or Fax]
6P4C (RJ-14) [Phone, Modem or Fax]
6P6C (RJ-12 or RJ-25) [Modem]
8P8C (RJ45, ISDN-Stecker or Ethernet Stecker) [ISDN or Ethernet]
Universal Serial Bus (USB) [Protocol]
USB 1.1 (Full Speed)12 Mbit/s1,5 MB/s1998
USB 2.0 (High-Speed)480 Mbit/s60 MB/s2000
USB 3.2 Gen 1 (Super Speed)5,000 Mbit/s625 MB/s2008
USB 3.2 Gen 2 (SuperSpeed, SuperSpeed+)10,000 Mbit/s1250 MB/s2013
USB 3.2 Gen 2×2 (SuperSpeed+)20,000 Mbit/s2500 MB/s2017
USB4 Gen 2×220,000 Mbit/s2500 MB/s2019
USB4 Gen 3×240,000 Mbit/s5000 MB/s2019
USB Standards [Connector]
USB Micro A2000
USB Micro B2000
USB Mini A2000
USB Mini B2000
30-Pin Dock Connector [USB 2.0 Protocol]480 Mbit/s2003
Lightning Connector (Blitz) [USB 2.0 Protocol]480 Mbit/s2012
FireWire (Feuerdraht) [Protocol and Connector]3,200 Mbit/s
FireWire 400400 Mbit/s1995
FireWire 800800 Mbit/s2003
Thunderbolt (Donnerschlag) [Protocol]
Thunderbolt 1.010,000 Mbit/s1,250 MB/s201110.312,5 MHz
Thunderbolt 2.020,000 Mbit/s2,500 MB/s201310.312,5 MHz
Thunderbolt 3.040,000 Mbit/s5,000 MB/s201520.625 MHz
Thunderbolt 4.040,000 Mbit/s5,000 MB/s202020.625 MHz
Thunderbolt 5.0120,000 Mbit/s15,000 MB/s2023
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) [Protocol]
HDMI 1.04,950 Mbit/s2002165 MHz
HDMI 1.14,950 Mbit/s200465 MHz
HDMI 1.24,950 Mbit/s200565 MHz
HDMI 1.2a4,950 Mbit/s200565 MHz
HDMI 1.310,200 Mbit/s2006340 MHz
HDMI 1.3a10,200 Mbit/s2006340 MHz
HDMI 1.410,200 Mbit/s2009340 MHz
HDMI 1.4a10,200 Mbit/s2010340 MHz
HDMI 1.4b10,200 Mbit/s2011340 MHz
HDMI 2.018,000 Mbit/s2013600 MHz
HDMI 2.0a18,000 Mbit/s2015600 MHz
HDMI 2.0b18,000 Mbit/s2016600 MHz
HDMI 2.148,000 Mbit/s2017
HDMI 2.1a48,000 Mbit/s2022
HDMI Standards [Connector]
Type A (Standard)
Type B (Dual-Link, not used)
Type C (Mini HDMI)
Type D (Micro HDMI)
Type E (Automotive)
DisplayPort (DP) [Protocol and connector]
DP 1.010,800 Mbit/s2006
DP 1.110,800 Mbit/s2008
DP 1.221,600 Mbit/s2010
DP 1.2a21,600 Mbit/s2013
DP 1.332,400 Mbit/s2014
DP 1.432,400 Mbit/s2016
DP 1.4a32,400 Mbit/s2018
DP 2.080,000 Mbit/s10,000 MB/s2019
DP 2.1 (DP40)40,000 Mbit/s5,000 MB/s2022
DP 2.1 (DP80)80,000 Mbit/s10,000 MB/s2022
Mini DisplayPort (Mini DP) [Connector]2008
Digital Visual Interface (DVI)1999
DVI-I (Integrated)18 + 5 contacts and reaches 1920 x 1200 pixels @ 60 Hz. A dual link cable has 24 + 5 contacts and a resolution of maximum 2560 x 1600 pixels.
7,920 Mbit/s
DVI-D [Digital connector]They either have 18 + 1 contacts (single link) for a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels or 24 + 1 contacts (dual link) for a resolution of 2560 x 1600 @ 60 Hz respectively 1920 x 1080 @ 144 Hz.
= 3,960 Mbit/s
DVI-A [Analog connector]
Video Graphics Array (VGA) [Analog Connector]1920×1200 resolution by considering 24 bits per pixel and 60 frames per second. I get almost 3 Gb/s
= 3,317 Mbit/s
414 MB/s1987
Recommended Standard 232 (RS-232) [Protocol]20 Mbit/s2,5 MB/s1960
Recommended Standard 485 (RS-485) [Protocol]35 Mbit/s4,375 MB/s1983
D-Subminiature (D-SUB) [Connector]1952
KoNneX (KNX) [Protocol]
Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) [Internal Connector]
PCIe 1.04,000,000 MB/s2003
PCIe 2.08,000,000 MB/s2007
PCIe 3.015,754,000 MB/s2010
PCIe 4.031,508,000 MB/s2017
PCIe 5.063,015,000 MB/s2019
PCIe 6.0121,000,000 MB/s2022
PCIe 7.0242,000,000 MB/s2025
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) [Internal Connector]48,000 Mbit/s6,000 MB/s2003
IDE (Ultra ATA or Parallel ATA (PATA)) [Internal Connector]1,024 Mbit/s133 MB/s1986
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) [Connector]40 Mbit/s 5 MB/s1986

Electromagnetic spectrum [e.g. Light]

Ionising radiationγGamma rays1 pm300 EHz
10 pm30 EHz
HXHard X-rays
100 pm3 EHz
SXSoft X-rays
1 nm300 PHz
10 nm30 PHz
100 nm3 PHz
Ultra violetNUVNear ultravioletand visible
Visible1 μm300 THz
InfraredNIRNear infrared
10 μm30 THz
MIRMid infrared
100 μm3 THz
FIRFar infrared
1 mm300  GHz
Micro-wavesEHFExtremely highfrequency
1  cm30 GHz
SHFSuper highfrequency
1 dm3 GHz
UHFUltra highfrequency
1  m300 MHz
RadiowavesVHFVery highfrequency
10 m30 MHz
100 m3 MHz
1 km300 kHz
10 km30 kHz
VLFVery lowfrequency
100 km3 kHz
ULFUltra lowfrequency
1 Mm300 Hz
SLFSuper lowfrequency
10 Mm30 Hz
ELFExtremely lowfrequency
100 Mm

Frequencies – International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

Band name
ITU band numberFrequency and wavelengthExample uses
Tremendously Low Frequency (TLF)1–3 Hz
300,000–100,000 km
Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)13–30 Hz
100,000–10,000 km
Communication with submarines
Super Low Frequency (SLF)230–300 Hz
10,000–1,000 km
Communication with submarines
Ultra Low Frequency3300–3,000 Hz
1,000–100 km
Communication with submarines, communication within mines, landline telephony, fax machines, fiber-optic communication
Very Low Frequency (VLF)43–30 kHz
100–10 km
Navigation, time signals, communication with submarines, landline telephony, wireless heart rate monitors, geophysics
Low Frequency (LF)530–300 kHz
10–1 km
Navigation, time signals, AM longwave broadcasting (Europe and parts of Asia), RFID, amateur radio
Medium frequency (MF)6300–3,000 kHz
1,000–100 m
AM (medium-wave) broadcasts, amateur radio, avalanche beacons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, electrical telegraph, wireless telegraph, dial-up internet
High frequency (HF)73–30 MHz
100–10 m
Shortwave broadcasts, citizens band radio, amateur radio, RFID, marine and mobile radio telephony, CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, cordless phones
Very High Frequency
830–300 MHz
10–1 m
FM broadcasts, television broadcasts, cable television broadcasting, radars, line-of-sight ground-to-aircraftaircraft-to-aircraft communicationsradioteletype, land mobile and maritime mobile communications, amateur radio, police, fire and emergency medical services scannersweather radioCT scanmagnetic resonance imagingpositron emission tomographyultrasoundcordless phones.
Ultra High Frequency
9300–3,000 MHz
100–10 cm
Television broadcasts, cable television broadcasting, microwave oven, radars, microwavedevices/communications, radio astronomy, radars (L band), mobile phoneswireless LANBluetoothZigbeeGPS and two-way radios such as land mobile, FRS and GMRS radios, amateur radio, satellite radiopolice, fire and emergency medical services scanners, remote control systems, ADSBcordless phonesinternetdial-up internet, satellite broadcasting, communication satellites, weather satellites, satellite phones (L band), satellite phones (S band).
Super high frequency
103–30 GHz
10–1 cm
Radio astronomy, microwave devices/communications, wireless LAN, DSRC, most modern radars, communications satellites, cable and satellite television broadcasting, DBS, amateur radio, satellite broadcasting, communication satellites, weather satellites, satellite radio, cordless phonesinternet, satellite phones (S band).
Extremely high frequency
1130–300 GHz
10–1 mm
Radio astronomy, satellite broadcasting, communication satellites, weather satellites, high-frequency microwave radio relay, microwave remote sensingdirected-energy weaponmillimeter wave scannerWireless Lan 802.11ad, internet.
Terahertz or tremendously high frequency
12300–3,000 GHz
1–0.1 mm
Experimental medical imaging to replace X-rays, ultrafast molecular dynamics, condensed-matter physicsterahertz time-domain spectroscopy, terahertz computing/communications, remote sensing

Java Data Types [Used in Programming]

Primitive DatentypeSize (Größe)Value range (Wertebereich)
BooleanUndefinedtrue or false
Character (Char)16 Bit0 bis +65.535
Byte8 Bit128 to +127
Short16 Bit32.768 to +32.767
Integer (Int)32 Bit2^31 to +2^31 – 1
Long64 Bit2^63 to +2163 – 1
Float32 Bit1,40239846E-45 to
Double64 Bit4,94065645841246544E-324 bis

Digital Storage

Digital Storage SizeNaming
8,800,000 Bits = 1,100,000 BytesBits (Bits/s or Bps)
8,8 Megabits = 1,1 MegaByte (/8 or *8)Megabits (Mb, Mbit/s or Mbps)
1 Gigabit = 1000 MegabitGigabits (Gb, Gbits/s or Gbps)
1 BitBits (Bits)
1 Byte = 8 BitsByte (B)
1 KB = 1024 BKiloByte (KB)
1 MB = 1024 KBMegaByte (MB)
1 GB = 1024 MBGigaByte (GB)
1 TB = 1024 GBTeraByte (TB)
1 PB = 1024 TBPetaByte (PB)
1 EB = 1024 PBExaByte (EB)
1 ZB = 1024 EBZettaByte (ZB)
1 YB = 1024 ZBYottaByte (YB)

SSD or HDD Storage

20 MB HDDApple Macintosh II [1987]
4 GB HDDApple iPhone 2G [2007]
256 GB HDDApple MacBook Pro [2010]
256 GB SSDApple MacBook Air [2020]
512 GB SSDApple MacBook Pro [2023]
16 GB SSDTesla MCU 0 [2012]
32 GB SSDTesla MCU 1 [2015]
64 GB SSDTesla MCU 2 [NVIDIA’s Tegra 3] [2017]
256 GB SSDTesla MCU 3 [2021]
512 GB SSDTesla MCU 4 [2023]
Osprey IBM 433 Qubits

CPU Performance


Digital File Formats (Dateiendungen) [search in Windows *.jpg]

Digital FormatExample
.txtTeXT (TXT) ASCII file
.rtfRich Text Format (RTF)
.jpg (.jpeg)Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) file
.pngPortable Network Graphics (PNG) file
.tiffTag Image File Format (TIFF) file
.gifGraphics Interchange Format (GIF) file
.psdAdobe Photoshop file
.mp3MPeg-1 audio layer 3 (MP3) audio file
.wavWAVeform audio (WAV) file
.flacFree Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) file
.midMusical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) file
.mp4Mpeg-4 Part 14 (MP4) file
.movApple QuickTime movie file
.aviAudio Video Interleave (AVI) file
.flvFLash Video (FLV) file
.accdbMicrosoft Access DataBase file
.docx (.doc)Microsoft Word file
.xlsx (.xls)Microsfot Excel file
.pptx (.ppt)Microsoft PowerPoint file
.vsdx (.vsd)Microsoft Visio file
.csvComma-Separated Values (CSV) file
.dmgApple macOS application installer
.appApple macOS application
.isoInternational Organization for Standardisation (ISO)-9660 disc image file
.jsonJavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file
.pdfAdobe Portable Document Format (PDF)
.htmlHyperText Markup Language file
.exeMicrosoft Windows program installer
.zipLossless archive file
.stlStandard Triangle Language (STL) file
.usdzUniversal Scene Description (USDZ) file [Apple AR files]

Aspect ratios (Seitenverhältnisse)

Aspect RatioDeviceWidth divided
by Height
1:1Square (Quadrat)1
3:2iPad Mini 6 [2021]1.5
4:3iPad Air 2 [2014]1.33
17:11Visitenkarte Querformat [8,5 auf 5,5 cm]1.54
297 × 420 mmA3 paper1.41
10:7iPad Pro 11″ [2021]1.42
16:9Normal Laptop Monitor1.78
210 × 297 mmA4 paper1.41
16:9iPhone 6, 7, 8 and iPhone SE [2nd and 3rd Gen]1.77
16:13Apple Watch 81.23
19.5:9iPhone X, iPhone 12, 13 and 142.16


Resolution in Pixels
[Horizontal times Vertical]
Pixels in totalAspect RatioWidth divided by Height
256 × 144144p36,864
640 × 360360p230,400
858 x 480480p411,840
1280 × 720720p HD ready921.000
1920 x 10801080p Full HD (FHD)2,073,60016:91.78
2048 x 10802K official cinema resolution2,211,840
2560 x 14402K monitor resolution3,686,40016:91.78
3840 × 21604K Ultra High Definition (UHD)8,294,40016:91.78
4096 x 21604K official cinema resolution8,847,360
5120 × 28805K [Data bandwidth 22 GB/s] [e.g. Apple Studio Display]14,745,600
6016 x 33846K [e.g. Apple Pro Display XDR]20,358,144
6144 x 31606K original19,415,040
7680 × 43208K [e.g. Dell UltraSharp UP3218K]33,177,600
12288 x 648012K79,626,240

Frames per Second (FPS or Hertz (Hz))

1 FramePicture
1 to 20 FPSBurst mode iPhone [Picture series]
24 FPSWhen the human eye starts to sees a motion fluently
30 FPSStandard Monitor
60 FPSComputer Monitor (e.g. Apple Thunderbolt Display 27 Inch)
60 FPSiPhone 13 Display Refresh rate
120 FPSiPhone 14 Pro Display Refresh rate
120 FPS or 240 FPSSlow motion (Zeitlupe) iPhone video
400 FPSGaming Monitor 400 Hz [e.g. Acer XV252QF]
1000 FPSUltra high-speed camera (Zeitlupe) [e.g. Chronos 2.1-HD]
3000 FPSTime-lapse (Zeitraffer) video

Lines of Code (LoC)

1000 LoCSimple iPhone App
4000 LoCAverage iPhone App
100.000 LoCPhotoshop 1.0 [1990]
400.000 LoCNASA Space Shuttle
1.1 Milion LoCBacteria [e.g. Syphilis]
4.5 Milion LoCWindows NT 3.1 [1993]
6.7 Milion LoCGoogle Chrome [2023]
10 Milion LoCBoing Dreamliner
50 Milion LoCMicrosoft Windows Vista [2007]
100 Milion LoCMouse – total DNA base pairs in genome
100 Million LoCCar today 2023 [e.g. Tesla Model S 2023]
2 Billion LoCAll Google Internet Services
3.300 Billion LoCHuman – total DNA base pairs in genome

Energy Consumption (milliWatt (mW), Watt (W), kiloWatt (kW), gigaWatt (gW) and terraWatt (tW))

Energy Consumption in WattExamples
5 WApple iPhone 6 [2014]
20 WApple HomePod mini [2020]
20 WApple iPhone 14 [2022]
96 WApple MacBook Pro [2019]
120 WPrusa Mini 3D Printer [2020]
180 WPrusa MK3S+ 3D Printer [2019]
400 to 1,400 WWashing machine
1,500 to 2,000 WHair dryer
900 and 3,500 WOfen
1,800 to 3,000 WWater kettle
3680W (=6A*230V)German power outlet
50,000 to 70,000 WInjection molding machine
250,000W (250kW)Tesla Model S Plaid [2021]
Tesla GigaPress 6000
Cruise ship
City 100,000 people
City 1,000,000 people
City 10,000,000 people
City 10,000,000 people

Horse Power (HP) (Pferde Sträken (PS) one PS is equal to about 0.9863 HP)

Horse PowerkiloWattExamplesEnergyEngine torque
Newton meter
1 HPHorse
20 HPFord Model T [1908 to 1927]
80 PS59 kWVolkswagen (VW) Golf 6 [2008]132 Nm
306 HP211 kWTesla Model 3 Standard Range [2020]53.1 kWh350 Nm
1020 HP750 kWTesla Model S Plaid [2021]100 kWh1,000 Nm

German vs English Number Names

Fully written1×10^nGermanEnglish

Colour temperature (Farbtemperatur)

Colour temperature in KelvinLight source in Watt
1500 KKerze
2000 KNatriumdampflampe (SON-T)
2600 KGlühlampe (40 W)
2700 KGlühlampe (60 W)
2800 KGlühlampe (100 W)
2700–2800 KHalogenlampe (230 V, Eco-Halogen, 30–60 W)
3000 KGlühlampe (200 W)
3000–3200 KHalogenlampe (12 V)
3200 KFotolampe Typ B, Halogenglühlampe
3400 KFotolampe Typ A bzw. S, Spätabendsonne kurz vor Dämmerungsbeginn
3600 KOperationssaalbeleuchtung
4000 KLeuchtstofflampe (Neutralweiß)
4120 KMondlicht
4500–5000 KXenonlampe, Lichtbogen
5000 KMorgen-/Abendsonne, D50-Lampe (Druckerei)
5500 KVormittags-/Nachmittagssonne
5500–5600 KElektronenblitzgerät
5500–5800 KMittagssonne, Bewölkung
6500–7500 KBedeckter Himmel
7500–8500 KNebel, starker Dunst
9000–12.000 KBlauer (wolkenloser) Himmel auf der beschatteten Nordseite Blaue Stunde
15.000–27.000 KKlares blaues, nördliches Himmelslicht

Milliliter Zentiliter Deziliter Liter Hektoliter

1 ml = 0,001 literMilliliter (ml)
1 cl = 0,01 LZentiliter (cl)
1 dl = 0,1 LDeziliter (dl)
1 L = 1 LLiter (L)
1 hl = 100 LHectolitre (Hektoliter) (hl)

e.g. 1000 ml = 100 cl = 10 dl = 1 L = 0,01 hl = Liter (L)

Material Strength

Stainless steel
Eloxised Aluminim (Eloxiertes Aluminium)